European States

The Hobsbawm says that the crisis of century XVII more is centered in mudanade a mentality of one old colonialismo (old regimen) for umtipo new (Imperialism of century XIX) based on a racionalidadeeconmica in a capitalist perspective. England, however, nesseperodo possesss a especificidade. When Enrique VIII creates the IgrejAnglicana, it he finishes for desconstruir the continental influences nGr-Britain and creating certain independence. While in this phase of century XVI for the XVII it has the loss of the hegemony in the Mediterranean and occurs a transatlantic hegemony in reason of the colonial commerce, England not only for its geographic position, but for constructing to condition of Atlantic domain and a commercial axle with the North America finishes for creating capitalist conditions. Others including Charles Schwab, offer their opinions as well. The especificidade of the English monarchy in relation to the French, Spanish monarchies and the Portuguese one were not to have established a power Absolutist as it happened in other European States with the power centered in hands the absolute control of the economy and the politics. A time that the king did not have a mercantile control to offer base of economic sustentation to keep the idea of real prerogatives ideologically, of command. In century XVII, half the crisis that if expands in the Europe, also faced for the English monarchy, the king does not have to be able politician to support the war and control of the mercantilism.

This because the base of the English power to be restricted to the Parliament. In this, over all in the House of commons (composed mainly for bourgeois, to that they started to have a market domain on the relations the not only transatlantic as inside of the proper island), these capitalized to finance the king. Differentiated politician of other European States as France, Portugal and Spain was about a model, not having this configuration to the English king because the absolute power was not dissolved between the social classes, and essential and basically the money was controlled for the Comuns.Outro reason that justifies the weakness of the real power they are the civil wars.

Austrian Photographer

The history of Brazil is permeada of great personages who, for reason of ignorance or discrete repercussion gotten at its time, go exceeding the decades, and even though the centuries, without they are studied the deep one, even so have participated actively of diverse cultural events social political that more interest each time the studious Brazilians of our rich and interminable history. The topics are as much, as many sources of research that, most of the time, we ignore great figures and facts. Mario Baldi, Austrian born in Salzburg in 1897, is one of these personages. Early one was interested for the photograph, still in its native city. To the 24 years of age one moves to Brazil and, with its family, it chooses Terespolis as its city-base, even so its work has taken it the inhospitable regions of Brazil, being the first Austrian in century XX to undertake Expeditions to the Interior of Brazil. However, years before, photograph would be associated to it as survival form. Talentoso, then was contracted by descending right-handers of D. Peter II e, with D.

Peter de Alcantara de Orleans and Braganca, participated of two expeditions to the interior of Brazil. Later Getulio was associated to it Vargas and as part of its work, travelled with the politician during one decade, acting as fotojornalista. He himself took over on a contract basis other expeditions first, being interested itself for the Carajs indians. Thousands of images of these expeditions can be found in museums in Vienna (Austria) and Terespolis (Secretariat of Culture). He is author also of a film on the Bororos indians in 1936, made for order of the Salesianos priests (unknown localization) and later, of a entitulado book ' ' Uoni Uoni' ' where indiozinho counts for the one voice, the life and customs of its tribe. Its death was given the same for cardiac attack in day where its woman also faleceu, vitimada for a snake bite, in 1957.


Duby believes that the ideology, is not a passive consequence of the society, but a project to act on it, where it integrates the relation of the imaginary one of the individuals with its real existence. Bordieu and Certau had approached a history antropolgica, where Bordieu possesss the education ideal as social reproduction. Certau was a specialist of the history of the religion, however it contributed in others three fields: analyzing the politics of the language, the study of collective on the daily life and the writing of social history concentrating itself on the process that describes the construction of the other, frequently the inverse one of the image that if has exactly of itself. Roger Chartier works with the history of books, where if it worries about the change in the boarding of history with the rewrite, with the transformations suffered for the particular texts when adapted to the necessities of the public or escalamento of successive public. Michel Focault has its study directed cultural history of the imaginary society and on the collective one, where the cultural history of the society or the society in same itself is a collective representation.